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Citation Guides: DOI


CrossRef DOI Lookup

If no DOI is listed, use CrossRef free DOI lookup to see if the article is assigned a DOI. 

Note: If there is an & in the title, you may need to change the & to and.

See the APA Style Guide to Electronic References for the APA style for doi.


Where is the DOI Listed on Article Citations and and Articles?

To address the problem of changing and nonworking URL’s, scholarly publishers are assigning a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to journal articles. The DOI is a unique and persistent link to the article.

The DOI is often listed in the article citation or on the first page of the document. Examples with a DOI are listed below:

Article Citation


Method for citing:
Matamoros, V., Arias, C., Brix, H., & Bayona, J. (2007). Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater in a pilot vertical flow constructed wetland and a sand filter. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(23), 8171-8177.


Publisher Website


Method for citing:
Baicker, K. (2006). The labor market effects of rising health insurance. Journal of Labor Economics, 24(3), 609-634.


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